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Sedimentology

Competency Statement:

Identify sedimentary rocks and processes from such information as outcrops, thin sections studies, core reports, cuttings and well logs.  Describe sedimentary and diagenetic processes through conventional and specialized studies including XRD / XRF analysis. Determine the rock's framework grains, matrix, porosity and various types of cements.  Define depositional environments and facies architecture within the context of basin analysis.

Learning Objective:

  • Use core, outcrop and thin section data to define lithofacies and depositional environments in terms of composition, texture, geometry, sedimentary structure, porosity and diagenesis.
  • Use core data, well cuttings, and well logs to construct lithostratigraphic columns, infer depositional environments and build geologic cross-sections.
  • Review facies trends and extrapolate them to a regional scale.
  • Use sedimentological interpretations as a basis for building facies distribution maps and net-to-gross sand isopach maps.

Assignment Instruction:

As a member of the New Ventures Team for Beta Exploration, Inc., your responsibility is to evaluate new hydrocarbon exploration opportunities. Your role is to understand the sedimentary development and hydrocarbon potential of basins that Beta Exploration, Inc. desires to explore. In many cases, recommendations must be made with a limited amount of data.

This learning module will allow you to use the data available in this region to interpret the depositional systems.

The existing information in this exploration area is limited. Some wells have been drilled in the past and SP and gamma logs are available. New wells have been drilled recently and intervals of interest were cored. Gathering, defining and interpreting well data are important tasks of exploration geologists to construct correlations and maps.

The base map of the region is below. The data set used for this exercise includes surface outcrop information, core descriptions and electric logs of wells.

You will have the description of grain size and texture, primary sedimentary structures, ichnofacies and other data to classify the lithofacies and complete the facies analysis for certain wells. Additionally, you will calibrate cores to well logs to complete your analysis.

Using this information, you will interpret the facies successions and depositional environments in each well. Subsequently you will construct a correlation with 5 wells (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and map paleoenvironments distribution.

Finally, you will make a net sand map to observe the trend of sandstone deposition.

Base Map

LP1_LM1_ref2857