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Positioning and Mapping at Sea

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Illustrates requirements and methods of navigation and positioning in marine seismic operations. Gives the land surveyor's nautical counterpart the necessary background to make required measurements, computations and compensations. Illustrates steering ship on a planned line, relating line to previous surveys, and ensuring that a drilling rig can return to optimal location.

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Total Number of Subtopics: 13
  • expand/collapse Introduction to Positioning and Mapping at Sea
    • Overview
    • Introduction
  • expand/collapse Towed Streamer Acquisition
    • Marine Seismic Operations
    • Definition of Coordinate Reference Frame
    • Source, Receiver and Common Depth Point Coordinates
    • Survey Design, 3D Binning Grids and Sail-Line Definitions
    • Acquisition, Logging, Processing and QC of navigation data
  • expand/collapse Satellite Positioning Systems
    • Development of Satellite Positioning Systems
    • GPS and Differential GPS
    • Tail-buoy tracking and Secondary Vessel Positioning
    • GPS Vessel Orientation
    • GPS in Summary
  • expand/collapse Secondary Positioning Systems
    • Secondary Positioning Systems
    • Vessel Gyro
    • Acoustic Networks and Ranges
    • Laser Gun-Float and Buoy Positioning
    • Cable Compasses
    • Gun and Cable Depth Sensors
    • Offsets, Lay-backs and Along-Cable measurements
    • Echo Sounders
  • expand/collapse Positioning Systems Calibration
    • Introduction
    • Static Calibration
    • Dynamic Calibration
    • Magnetic Declination and Compass Bias
    • Measuring Water Depths
  • expand/collapse Definitions Controls and Checks
    • Contracts and Technical specifications
    • Survey design and Bin Grid Definition
    • Health Safety and Environmental and Operational Considerations
    • Sail-Lines, Coverage, Feather, Bin-Fill and Undershoots
  • expand/collapse Navigation Data
    • Logging Raw Navigation Data
    • P2 Raw Data
    • Contractors' Navigation Data Processing
  • expand/collapse Navigation QC and Reporting
    • Navigation Quality Control
    • Statistical Analysis of Error
    • Communication and Reporting
    • Maps, Charts, Post-Plots, Bathymetry and GIS
  • expand/collapse Additional Exploration Positioning Requirements
    • Overview of 2D, OBC, Transition Zone, and 4D Acquisition
    • Exploration Site Investigation and Rig Positioning
  • expand/collapse New Developments
    • RTK, Full-Stream Acoustics, and Wide-swath Shooting
  • expand/collapse Supplemental Information
    • Brief History of Positioning Technology
    • Geodesy Datums, Spheroids and Projections
    • Water Depth, Tides, Chart Datum, and Bathymetric Charts
    • Implications to Health, Safety and Environment
    • Technical Audit and Survey Audit Considerations
    • Seismic Processing - Navigation Requirements
    • Sample Navigational Technical Specification
    • Survey Design, Bin-Grid and Sail-Lines
    • Radio Positioning Systems
  • expand/collapse Positioning and Mapping at Sea: Exercises
    • About this Course
    • Exercise 1 (Solution)
    • Exercise 2 (Solution)
    • Exercise 3 (Solution)
    • Exercise 4 (Solution)
    • Exercise 5 (Solution)
    • Exercise 6 (Solution)
    • Exercise 7 (Solution)
    • Exercise 8 (Solution)
    • Exercise 9 (Solution)
    • Exercise 10 (Solution)
  • expand/collapse Positioning and Mapping at Sea: References and Additional Information
    • References
    • Additional Reading
    • Acknowledgments
(Use the '+' and '-' buttons to expand or collapse each Subtopic Title individually for details.)